The book emphasizes that although Jim Crow laws were legal and indeed an intrinsic part of the Southern legal systemthey were also deeply unjust. Similarly, the police operate in a way that often terrorizes rather than helps the communities they are theoretically supposed to protect. Alexander also details the ways in which corruption and injustice influence the courts, pointing out that defendants often do not receive adequate legal representation and are pressured to plead guilty due to mandatory sentencing laws. They do not pose a major threat to society and—considering that a large percentage of the American population has consumed drugs—their involvement with drugs does not make them exceptional among the general population.
The young actor, nicknamed "Daddy," performed in theaters throughout New York for much of the s, but remained frustrated by his small roles and jealous of his colleagues who enjoyed greater celebrity.
Seeking new opportunities in the West, Rice accepted work as a stage carpenter in Louisville, Kentucky, an adjunct performer An analysis of the jim crow law an acting troupe in Cincinnati, Ohio, and a freelance prop man for a dilapidated playhouse in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
While in preparation for a stage show in Pittsburgh, Rice concocted a plan to win the notoriety he so desperately desired. He persuaded a Black steamboat baggage carrier to accompany him to the theater. During the performance, Rice secretly led the man through a private entrance and into the dressing room backstage.
Rice applied black cork all over his face and topped his costume with a matted black wig and a disheveled straw hat. Before a curious audience, he began to dance, exaggerating his movements, limping and shuffling, and belted a distorted version of a song he had heard a slave deliver while in Cincinnati, Ohio: The Atlantic Monthly reported several years later that the all white audience responded with tremendous enthusiasm: Such a thunder of applause as followed was never heard before within the shell of that old theatre.
Clerks hummed it serving customers at shop counters, artisans thundered it at their toils [ White audiences indulged in the comedic performance and returned again and again to enjoy the elaborate spectacle.
The Strange Career of Minstrelsy After the Civil Warminstrelsy, the slapstick blackface performances popularized by Rice, survived as a beloved form of entertainment. Even Samuel "Mark Twain" Clemens, an avid supporter of abolition before the war, enjoyed entertaining dinner guests in the s and s by performing his own Jim Crow impersonations.
By the early s, the still fashionable term "Jim Crow" had evolved from a way for whites to refer to the "comic" and "simple" existence of an entire race of people into a description of the laws that controlled them.
The ludicrous portrayal of a crippled Black slave came to define the elaborate system of racial segregation in place in the American South since the s. So, why would such a seemingly outdated phenomenon—one born during the height of the domestic slave trade, when the institution spread rapidly westward and few leaders anywhere in the country supported federally mandated abolition—survive decades after the Emancipation Proclamation?
The answer, like the moniker "Jim Crow," is intimately connected to the enforcement of racial apartheid in the American South. The "Splendid Failure" of Radical Reconstruction Shortly after the end of the Civil War, Republicans in Congress ratified the 13th14thand 15th Amendments to the Constitutionwhich prohibited slavery, guaranteed all citizens equal protection under the law, and granted universal male suffrage.
What followed was a brief, albeit revolutionary, period of biracial democracy in which African Americans, many of them former slaves, seized political, educational, and economic opportunities to reconstruct the society within which they lived.
Some 2, Blacks served in nearly every level of government in the South, from the school board to the Senate, even amidst a hostile environment of disenfranchised Southern Democrats.
By the lates, Radical Reconstruction had come to an end. As the central government withdrew federal troops and re-enfranchised ex-Confederate men, Democrats quickly regained power throughout the South and began to dismantle policies instituted during the prior years.
Whites employed violence to remove Black Southerners from positions of authority, intimidate Black voters, and purge Black families from coveted land.
As Northern leaders looked on, Southern lawmakers, business-owners, employers, landlords, educators, religious leaders, and politicians cooperated to resurrect the sort of racial hierarchy in place during the antebellum years. The New "Peculiar Institution" Even as the radical era came to an end, however, Black citizens continued to vie for greater freedom, still boldly challenging centuries of anti-Black traditions.
Those most likely to violate white Southern customs were the children and grandchildren of former slaves, the newest generation since the war and the first to have no recollection of slavery and its horrors.
Whites spoke disparagingly of these "new Negroes," those who seemed less respectful, less faithful, less moral, and less carefree than their ancestors. The growing population of "new Negroes," many of them more educated and less fearful of white authority than their predecessors, posed a significant threat to white domination in the South.
In response, white Southerners devised a plan to quarantine and control them. From the late s to the s, every state in the South, along with several states outside of the former Confederacy, including Indiana, Maryland, Kansas, Oregon, and California, passed laws to prohibit the mixing of races in just about every foreseeable circumstance.
Taking cues from Northern segregation policies enacted prior to the Civil War, Southern legislators dictated where Black citizens would eat, drink, sit, swim, walk, work, play, learn, live, be hospitalized, and be buried. Laws mandated separate seating areas for Blacks on public transport, in sports stadiums, in restaurants, and in playhouses and movie theaters.
City and state officials established whites-only lavatories, drinking fountains, waiting rooms, prison cells, ticket counters, and telephone booths.Historical analysis of Law in Jim Crow.
Jim Crow through the lens of Law. The New Jim Crow is not the same as the old Jim Crow as it has adapted to modern social sensibilities to downplay overt racial animus and play up on the fear of crime, since criminals are one of the few groups that people can hate with impunity.
The New Jim Crow Summary & Study Guide Description. The New Jim Crow Summary & Study Guide includes comprehensive information and analysis to help you understand the book. This study guide contains the following sections. Ferguson () case, which legitimized Jim Crow laws and the Jim Crow way of life.
|Black Codes - HISTORY||Jim Crow and slavery were caste systems. This is a rigid system of social distinctions in which members of each caste has its own privileges and limitations.|
|An Analysis of Jim Crow Laws and their Effects on Race Relations||The 13th Amendment forever outlawed slavery. The 15th Amendment guaranteed all citizens, regardless of race, the right to vote.|
|Law in Jim Crow||Although Jim Crow has technically ended, its fundamental effects on society have remained, and in this sense Jim Crow still exists today—albeit in a different from. Conventional understandings of the criminal justice system would emphasize the way in which Jarvius Cotton is different from the generations of his family that came before him.|
|The American English Dictionary suggests that the name only emerged in dictionaries inbut it was clearly used generally inat least.|
|Who was Jim Crow? The name referred to in the Jim Crow Laws was derived from a very famous and popular minstrel act of the era.|
In , Louisiana passed the "Separate Car Law," which purported to aid passenger comfort by creating "equal but separate" cars for blacks and whites.
Jim Crow Summary & Analysis. BACK; NEXT ; A Blackface Scheme. Thomas Rice wanted to be famous.
The young actor, nicknamed "Daddy," performed in theaters throughout New York for much of the s, but remained frustrated by his small roles and jealous of his colleagues who enjoyed greater celebrity. This unit, “An Analysis of Jim Crow Laws and Their Effects on Race Relations in America”, will focus upon the 60’s Civil Rights Movement.
The unit is designed for first graders of a New Haven Public School.