Themes, Arguments, and Ideas The Necessity of Freedom In his work, Rousseau addresses freedom more than any other problem of political philosophy and aims to explain how man in the state of nature is blessed with an enviable total freedom. This freedom is total for two reasons.
Inputs are responses entering into the system. Demands put strain or stress on the system, whereas support provides energy to sustain it.
Easton does not discuss the nature or form of within-puts.
The political system receives both demands and supports from society or environment. It is driven by demands, and sustained by supports. It can take the form of stress, effects, demands, agitations, crises etc. Mostly, they are of collective or public nature.
Demands can take several forms, such as, provision for certain things, services, and conveniences; regulating public behaviour; participating in the political system, for making symbolic expressions, etc.
A system may not be in a position to convert all demands into outputs. It looks into quantity, nature of contents, source, kind, volume, intensity, etc.
Only a few demands reach the output stage. It is located at the boundary of the system and regulates the flow of articulation of demands. Unimportant demands are scrutinised and regulated by and through various gate-keeping roles.
They may not even be allowed to enter the system. On the basis of prevailing socio-cultural norms, certain demands can be designated as incompatible with them, thus, lessened in considerable manner, if not rejected altogether. Sometimes they become the basis or constraints of political demands.
Demands may be reduced to a limited number through a process-selection, scrutiny, grouping, etc. Some criteria, general or restricted, may be added to it. A political system also receives support from its environment.
After subtracting demands from inputs, we get supports which operate between the system and its environment. They are positive responses towards specific objects or level of a political system.
Support can be towards a the political community which means the acceptance of political division of labour; b the regime which embodies basic values, political structures, and norms underlying the political system; and c the political authorities or persons holding power in the given context.
Support can be given at some particular or all levels. Support to a regime broadly means legitimacy of the system, its constitutionality, basic structure, and inherent values.
The last level invokes holding of respect, loyalty, and obedience to the particular persons wielding political authority. It includes administrators and officials. The support can be rendered in many ways — by paying taxes, obedience to law, participation in the form of voting, discussion, comments, and constructive suggestions, or deference towards public authorities.
The form and style of expressing support can be overt or covert, positive or negative, diffuse or specific, and so on. Often the political system obtains support by and through allocation values and implementation thereof, manipulation of outputs, socialisation, and other political means.
|Socialist Equality Party Statement of Principles | Socialist Equality Party||Of the Beginning of Political Societies, and Of the Ends of Political Society and Government Summary Locke starts off by arguing that the governing factor in civil society must be the majority, for practical reasons.|
|Political Science: Nature, Scope and Methods of Political Science||It is pervasive i. It is universal — It is applicable in business as well as other social and political organisations.|
Without support at a certain minimum level, no political system can persist. There can be many causes of failure, as is the case with some Third World countries for not getting support from their populace, such as inadequate use of regulatory mechanism, non-generation of support, and neglect of outputs.
Outputs are the decisions and actions of the authorities.A framework for public policy analysis and policy evaluation M. Theo Jans IES research colloqium – 4 September –How are they placed on political and policy agenda?
–Clash with norms, values, principles –Unfavourable comparisons with other countries/situations. The nature of man is intricate; the objects of society are of the greatest possible complexity; and therefore no simple disposition or direction of power can be suitable either to .
The relation between individual and society is very close. Essentially, “society” is the regularities, customs and ground rules of antihuman behavior.
These practices are tremendously important to know how humans act and interact with each other.
Principles of Political Economy’s fifth book probes the government’s influence on society. As a preface to his arguments about the nature of laws, he states, “Not only does the State undertake to decide disputes, it takes precautions beforehand that disputes may not arise.
Although Rawls rejected the notion of a pre-social or pre-political state of nature, he argued that the basic features of a just society could best be discovered by considering the principles of government that would be accepted by a group of rational individuals who have been made ignorant of their positions in society (and thus also of the.
Aristotle holds that man is by nature a social animal, and that (political) society exists for the sake of the common good of man: happiness, which is the virtuous life. Hobbes holds than man is a social animal by artifice, that he is naturally an individualistic and antisocial animal, and that political society exists to keep men from killing.