This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. Imperium Romanum, Imperium Romanorum; Greek: Res Publica Romana; Greek: Imperium Graecorum in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum Emperor of the Greeks  were also used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West.
Rise of Christian Art The earliest examples of Christian art in the Roman catacombs are crude and timid, but for that very reason they, are not hampered by the weight of a strong stylistic tradition.
Before Christianity could evolve an articulate artistic language of its own it was necessary that the pagan language of art, so carefully perfected by the Greeks, should disintegrate. And it was fortunate that at the very moment when the earliest Christian artists were groping for a means of expression, that disintegration was already in an advanced stage.
The symbolic language iconography for which the Christian was searching would have been strangled by the descriptive language of pre-Christian art. Christian Roman Art [ onwards]. As long as Christianity had no official status it could produce no art of any permanence.
In the Roman catacombs a few tentative experiments in evolving the new symbolism were made, but they are of little aesthetic interest. There was, however, one exception to the confusion that reigned over most of Europe. There was a patch that was comparatively peaceful and comparatively civilized round the eastern end of the Mediterranean.
Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt formed an area within which, given favourable circumstances, new types of art could develop. It needed the stimulus of a state-protected religion, and the consequent appearance of a set of state-approved churches to give such art a dwelling-place.
It was at this moment that the pendulum that had swung steadily from Egypt to Crete, from Crete to Athens, and from Athens to Rome, stopped swinging and hung in the balance, waiting for the advent of a fresh impulse to reverse its movement.
Church Art in Constantine's Eastern Empire If the impulse can be attributed to a single man, that man is the Emperor Constantine, who had the good sense to choose this moment CE to move eastwards into the area that still showed signs of civilizationand to transfer the seat of the Empire to Constantinople Byzantiumand at the same time to adopt a protective and tolerant attitude towards Christianity.
At last it was possible for Christian religious art to attach itself to something permanent - to the church wall. There it could find a home for itself more fitting than the art of Egypt had ever found in the tomb, or the art of Greece in the temple.
The art of Egypt belonged to the tomb only in the sense that a bundle of share certificates belongs to a fire-proof safe; and Greek statues had belonged to the temple only in the sense that easel-pictures belong to a room. But early Christian art belongs to the church as the text of a book belongs to the paper on which it is printed.
Byzantine art originated and evolved from the Christianized Greek culture of the Eastern Roman Empire; content from both Christianity and classical Greek mythology were artistically expressed through Hellenistic modes of style and iconography. The art of Byzantium never lost sight of its classical heritage; the Byzantine capital, Constantinople, was adorned with a large number of classical. The Byzantine Empire with its capital at Constantinople was exceptionally rich and powerful for a number of years after the collapse of the Eastern Empire in C.E. Constantinople was an opulent. Byzantine empire vs Roman empire by:Richard Petatan The Byzantine Empire sometimes known as the Eastern Roman Empire was the mainly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern half of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
The Christian artist had an opportunity given to no other artist before him, the opportunity of creating a complete iconography of the visual side of religion, and not merely of illustrating it. It was an opportunity almost too big for any man to grasp, and at first it was done fumblingly.
See, for instance, the Byzantine-influenced Garima Gospels from Ethiopia's Abba Garima Monastery, the world's most ancient illuminated Christian manuscripts. If it had been left to Rome to do it, it would have been badly done. All Rome could do was to apply worn-out pagan symbols to the new religion, to depict an Apollo or an Orpheus and label him Jesus, or to make Christ and his disciples look as they do in the early mosaic of S.
Pudenziana in Romerather like an informal meeting of the Roman Senate. Fortunately the Oriental section of the Empire was much better fitted for the task. Even, before Christianity had been recognized, a mysticized version of paganism known as Mithraism had been developing in Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor, and it was easy enough to adapt this mystical frame of mind to Christianity.
Mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna It is difficult to fix a precise date at which the pendulum can be said to have begun to swing back.
One of the earliest major works of Christian art is the mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna of the fourth century.
Here, in a tiny brick building no bigger than a country cottage, the Roman idioms are used with a purely Oriental effect. The Saints look like Roman philosophers, the beardless Christ is nothing but a rustic shepherd sitting in rather vapid bucolic contentment among his sheep, and yet to enter the brick shell and to find oneself in an unearthly gloom encrusted with blue and silver and gold mosaics is to be taken at a leap right across the Greek peninsula into an atmosphere that only a semi-oriental vision could have conceived.
This is the earliest successful attempt to serve up the old pagan wine in the new Christian bottle. A more spectacular impulse was given to it by the building of the great church of St Sophia in Constantinople by the Emperor Justinian and his pious wife Theodora.
We are not here concerned with the church as a landmark in architectural construction, and the mosaics which cover its interior have only relatively recently been freed from the coat of whitewash with which Islam insisted on covering them after the Turkish occupation of Constantinople.
But Justinian erected an equally significant though smaller example of sixth-century Byzantine art in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna.
Here the new symbolism is beginning to gain the upper hand. The Roman idioms are still there but they have ceased to count for much. They are supplanted by a new orchestral use of colour. Colourtreated by the Egyptians and Greeks merely as a useful descriptive or decorative addition, is here used for full-blooded emotional ends.
What is significant about this building and its successors is that it was regarded, architecturally, as a set of interior wall-spaces. It was built from the inside outwards.As Peter Heather puts it [The Fall of the Roman Empire, Oxford, ], Rome was now an "inside-out" Empire -- the center and the periphery had exchanged places (as illustrated in the animation at left).This transformation is scrupulously ignored in popular treatments of the Roman Empire, even in apparently well researched presentations on venues like the History Channel.
Both the Byzantine Empire and Ancient Roman have similar aspects, but each one made it unique. To better understand the similarities and differences of the Byzantine Empire and Ancient Romans one must look at each civilization’s cultural ideas, religion, & dependence on lower class.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Transcript of Byzantine vs. Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire vs. The Roman Empire Impact on Socioty Both used paintings, sculpture of wood, granite, and ivory, architecture, and walls to creat mosaics and works of art that at times may seem similar but have a few large differences.