R2 for this equation was. The criterion variable was attitudes toward tanning. The predictor variables were the beliefs that tanned women are fashionable, fit, and shallow.
Before we can appreciate cinema's century-long pattern of stereotypical representation, we need to have a more precise understanding of what stereotypes and stereotyping are—in general and as they appear in the media.
I address these fundamental issues in this chapter by focusing first on social scientific theory surveying mainly psychological and sociological perspectives in order to clarify some of stereotyping's more prominent features and develop a working definition of it.
In the process, I gradually introduce notions of the representation of Otherness in the media from cultural studies.
In this way, I synthesize a theoretical framework for my critical investigation of Latino stereotypes in cinema. The first thing to note is that for all the worthwhile research done on stereotypes and stereotyping, stretching back over decades, social scientists have yet to agree on a definitive meaning for either term.
The research Exposure to stereotypes theorizing Exposure to stereotypes different approaches and interests, and consequently, as one recent surveyor of the stereotyping literature commented, "A single and unified concept of stereotype cannot be found. For one thing, examining many perspectives presents an opportunity to gain a deeper understanding of the process of stereotyping.
For another, the lack of a consensus on a single definition allows us the freedom to forge one of our own. This categorizing function was recognized in by Walter Lippmann, who first coined the term "stereotyping.
The first is that in the sense that stereotyping means simply the creation of categories based on the recognition of gross difference swe all stereotype. Furthermore, this sort of stereotyping is not "wrong," nor is it something that only bad people, or prejudiced, ignorant, or racist people, do.
We all do it, and—if cognitive psychologists are right about how the human brain perceives, processes, stores, and recalls information—we need to.
It is important to accumulate experiences and be able to distinguish a door from a window, a male from a female, a snake from a twig. This sort of negative generalizing is in fact what we usually mean when we think of stereotyping—not simply value-neutral category-making.
For most of us, stereotyping is the act of making judgments and assigning negative qualities to other individuals or groups. For this kind of "bad" stereotyping to develop, I believe two crucial elements need to be added to plain category-making.
One is ethnocentrism, classically defined as the "view of things in which one's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled or rated with reference to it. By this measure, and not surprisingly, "They" are always incomplete and imperfect. The second necessary ingredient that transforms neutral categorization into a discriminatory practice is prejudice: Prejudice holds that They are inherently not as good not as clean, civilized, righteous, religious, intelligent, trustworthy, respectful of life, decent, hardworking, honorable, etc.
Judging the Other as inherently inferior is a key feature of prejudicial thinking, and its most troubling one in that it indicates the intransigent view that They cannot change. Later we will see what disastrous results can result from such extremely biased and rigid judgments about the out-group.
To sum up, stereotyping in the negative and derogatory way the term is usually applied can be represented thus: A stereotype is the result of this process and can be defined as a negative generalization used by an in-group Us about an out-group Them.
Lippmann called these mental constructs "pictures in our heads. Stereotypes Are Applied with Rigid Logic According to one view, stereotyping is triggered by a reductive, all-or-nothing logic, by which stereotypers place anyone identified as an outgroup member into the stereotyped category, then assign the stereotypical traits to that individual.
Bhabha says, fixity is a key component "in the ideological construction of otherness. This attempt to control the world beyond the self by taxonomy is what Edward Said shows is at the heart of the scientific aspects of Orientalism.
Of course, the flaw in such thinking is that the world, the self, and the Other are organic, dynamic, and ever-changing, and attempts to freeze them can only lead to frustration.
Indeed, stereotypes exist partly to cope with this confounding inconstancy. A primary function of stereotypes, says Richard Dyer, is "to make fast, firm and separate what is in reality fluid.
For Fishman it was the "kernel of truth" that explained why large numbers of people agreed on many stereotypes; he posited that changes in stereotypes occurred in response to changes in political, social, and economic conditions.
In the case of the stereotype, any real-life correspondence between a group member's behavior and a quality said to be characteristic of the entire group is only an isolated part of a much larger story, and usually far from the whole truth.
Yes, there indeed were and are Mexican bandits, lazy African Americans, and Italian American gangsters. But banditry, laziness, and criminality are not culture specific, nor do those qualities represent the group's complete experience.
But since any group's: Ultimately, however, although similar in some aspects, individuals in groups both out-group and in-group are just that—individuals—and therefore exhibit heterogeneity, not homogeneity. Stereotypes flatten, homogenize, and generalize individuals within a group, emphasizing sameness and ignoring individual agency and variety.Data and statistical information on the health effects of secondhand smoke.
Exposure to secondhand smoke has immediate adverse effects on the cardiovascular system and can cause coronary heart disease and stroke.
2,4,5. Ethnic brand imagery, including American Indian mascots, can strengthen stereotypes, causing detrimental societal consequences, according to a newly published study conducted by a University of. "When we use stereotypes, we take in the gender, the age, the color of the skin of the person before us, and our minds respond with messages that say hostile, stupid, slow, weak.
Those qualities. One of the main places that children and adults learn stereotypes is the mass media. Content analyses have found that advertisements, television programs, movies, and other media are saturated with racial and gender stereotypes (Entman & Rojecki, ; Furnham & Mak, ; Plous & Neptune, ).
Solutions to stereotyping include exposure to diversity, education on various social groups and awareness of the personal feelings and thoughts that affect actions and beliefs.
People should also train their brains, disapprove stereotypes and seek media messages that are factual, realistic and positive. In social psychology, a stereotype is an over-generalized belief about a particular category of people.
Stereotypes are generalized because one assumes that the stereotype is true for each individual person in the category. While such generalizations may be useful when making quick decisions, they may be erroneous when applied to particular individuals.