Tags Introduction Methodology is perhaps the most challenging and laborious part of research work. This means that your methodology chapter should clearly state whether you chose to use quantitative or qualitative data collection techniques or a mixture of both. You will be required to provide justifications as to why you preferred a certain method over the others. If you are trying to figure out exactly how to write methodology or how to structure methodology of research or dissertation then this article will point you in the right direction.
Education By Karin M. Ouchida and Mark S.
Butler coined the term ageism in and spent his career trying to eradicate it. Read this entire issue on AgeBlog The healthcare community is not immune to the deleterious effects of ageism.
It permeates the attitudes of medical providers, the mindset of older patients, and the structure of the healthcare system, having a potentially profound influence on the type and amount of care offered, requested, and received.
Ageism Among Healthcare Providers Adults ages 65 and older see doctors on average twelve times per year, and nearly 80 percent see a primary clinician at least once per year Davis et al. These visits represent critical opportunities for providers to promote physical and psychosocial health, and patients expect counseling that is individualized for their functional status, life expectancy, and care preferences.
Ageism can take the form of a provider dismissing treatable pathology as a feature of old age, or treating expected changes of aging as though they were diseases Kane, Ouslander, and Abrass, Ageism among healthcare providers can be explicit or implicit.
The geriatrician and writer Dr. Louise Aronson describes a disturbing example of explicit ageism in which a surgeon asks the medical student observing his case what specialty she is thinking of pursuing.
The attending surgeon had a reputation for being an outstanding teacher, yet repeats this parody throughout the surgical procedure. Sadly, despite the growing need for more providers with geriatrics expertise, many physicians-in-training come to view the care of older adults as frustrating, uninteresting, and less rewarding overall.
These negative views likely are influenced by the predominant exposure of medical trainees to hospitalized geriatric patients versus community-dwelling older adults, and by the inherent challenges in caring for medically complex older adults who need extensive care coordination within an increasingly fragmented system Adelman, Greene, and Ory, Becca Levy points out that ageism can also operate as implicit thoughts, feelings, and behaviors toward older people that occur without conscious awareness or control.
Whether provider ageism is explicit or implicit, it puts older patients at risk for under-treatment and over-treatment. Healthcare providers must also be attentive to unique features of medical encounters with older patients.
Older adults may have sensory or cognitive impairments and may be accompanied to the medical encounter by a third person. The majority of providers surveyed were physicians, but the sample also included nurse practitioners and physician assistants who serve as primary care providers PCP.
These results demonstrate how pain, fatigue, cognitive impairment, depression, and anxiety could easily go undiagnosed and untreated if healthcare providers erroneously attribute these symptoms and conditions solely to advancing age.
Research has shown that pain is consistently under-treated among older adults.
Qualitative studies demonstrate that while patients may harbor ageist expectations about the inevitability of pain in older age, their medical providers reinforce these beliefs by dismissing or minimizing back pain. In one study of an ethnically diverse sample of adults ages 65 years and older who had experienced restricting back pain in the last three months, a New York City focus group participant described the following exchange with his doctor: What am I supposed to do?
Another common ageist misconception among healthcare providers that can affect diagnosis and treatment of patients is that older adults are no longer sexually active.
While the prevalence of sexual activity declines with age, 53 percent of to year-olds and 26 percent of to year-olds report having sex with at least one partner in the previous year. Among the to year-olds who are sexually active, more than 50 percent had sex two to three times per month.
Among sexually active men and women, more than half suffer from a bothersome problem related to sex, but only 38 percent of men and 22 percent of women have talked to any physician about it Lindau, Given the unsustainable rate of growth in healthcare spending in the United States, health economists and policy experts have focused on over-treatment as a category of waste.
According to some estimates, waste accounts for approximately a third of all U. Examples of over-treatment specific to older patients include universal prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer, which can result in over-diagnosis of benign or slow-growing tumors, excessive treatment with surgery, and unnecessary harms like urinary incontinence following surgery; intensive care at the end of life that is inconsistent with patient preference; and, overuse of tests and procedures lacking evidence of benefit Berwick and Hackbarth, ; Health Affairs, Inthe American Board of Internal Medicine launched the Choosing Wisely campaign, asking medical specialties to identify commonly used tests and procedures that lack solid proof of benefit and may cause harm.
The campaign aims to foster conversations between patients and providers about the necessity of medical tests and treatments. Examples of medications, tests, and procedures that geriatric patients and providers should question include the placement of percutaneous feeding tubes in patients with advanced dementia, the excessive use of diabetes medications that can result in hypoglycemia, the use of harmful sedatives like benzodiazepines for insomnia or agitation, and the use of antibiotics for bacterial colonization of the urine, without clinical symptoms or signs of infection Choosing Wisely, a.Guidelines for Qualitative Papers There is no one qualitative method, but rather a number of research approaches which fall under the umbrella of ‘qualitative methods’.
The various social science disciplines tend to have different conventions on best practice in qualitative research. Introduction. Methodology is perhaps the most challenging and laborious part of research work. Essentially, the methodology helps to understand the broad philosophical approach behind methods of research you chose to employ for your study.
This means that your methodology chapter should clearly state whether you chose to use quantitative or qualitative data collection techniques or a mixture.
Kallet, Richard H.
"How to Write the Methods Section of a Research Paper." Respiratory Care 49 (October ): Notice that this is the exact same data. The first would probably be called a qualitative coding while the second is clearly quantitative.
The quantitative coding gives us additional useful information and makes it possible to do analyses that we couldn't do with the qualitative coding. Storybook Online Network - A Storytelling Community For Children MOST POPULAR TODAY: The Man Who Couldn't Wash The Dishes.
(4) the magic skateboard (3) I Want an Elephant (2) The Bunnys That Bite (1). STORIES IN PROGRESS. The paper discusses the concept of poverty and elucidates the various methods of measurement used in evaluating poverty. Causes of poverty in Nigeria were also brought into perspective.
It was concluded that inadequate economic growth is the main cause of poverty in Nigeria.