County of Suffolk — A. February 17, The petitioner bus company submitted a proposal in response to respondents request for proposals for transportation services but was not successful. Albany Custom Floors, Inc.
Adapted from Camp, Application at Various Project Phases and Management Levels Benchmarking can and should be used at various levels throughout the organization, but if project improvement is the goal, data will typically be entered at the project level.
Program- and department-level measures can be provided by roll-ups of the project-level data. Benchmarking can be applied during various phases of a project for different purposes. When applied early on, such as at project authorization, it can be used to identify characteristics that may be associated with potential future problems and to identify aspects of project management e.
When applied during project execution, it can serve as a project management tool to guide project decisions. Postproject benchmarking is usually used to assess performance of a project delivery system to provide for lessons learned and feedback that can be used to establish benchmarks for future comparisons.
Most organizations tend to begin with postproject comparisons and later progress to the earlier uses as confidence in the benchmarking process builds. Over time, when sufficient data are available, trends can be analyzed to provide insight into the performance of project management systems.
Since integrated project team IPT members will normally have moved on to new projects, trend analyses of project-level cost and schedule metrics would typically be used at program and department levels.
Benchmarking needs buy-in at various levels of an organization in order to be successful. Most often, benchmarking is driven from the top. Senior management commitment is critical if resources are to be made available for the process.
While benchmarking may succeed with senior management support alone, it is far more likely to succeed if it has the support of middle management and the project team.
Furthermore, the project team is far more likely to support the benchmarking initiative if it is understood that the goal is system improvement and not individual or team performance appraisal. The IPT members should be confident that data submitted for benchmarking will not be used for performance appraisals if accurate data are to be obtained.
Page 24 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. Some benchmarking services collect data through a survey instrument and then use an experienced analyst to review them. The project team is interviewed to clarify and resolve issues. A different approach to validation is to share responsibility between the project team and an outside organization.
An independent reviewer serves as an honest broker and validates the data by ensuring their completeness and accuracy. The reviewer should be a trained, independent professional with a good understanding of the data to be collected, the measures to be produced, and the project management process used.
A rigorous examination of all data is performed by the service provider as a final check. Whatever approach is used, a validation process assists in maintaining consistency across organizations.
Some private-sector companies fear that they may lose their competitive advantage by sharing information, and others fear exposure of organizational weakness. Use of an identity-blind process, whereby data are posted without attribution, can mitigate these concerns.
For some organizations, arrogance is a major obstacle. These organizations may believe they are the best, so why benchmark? As renowned management consultant W. Edwards Deming would probably ask superconfident organizations that lack performance data and comparison to other organizations: How do you know?
Other organizations are unaware of the value of benchmarking and believe that benchmarking systems do not adequately address their needs. Benchmarking agreements and training increase familiarity with the benchmarking process and can help to reduce these barriers. One of the greatest barriers to benchmarking is a lack of resources.
Most organizations are leaner today than in the past, and dedicating the essential resources can be difficult. For some organizations, project processes and computer systems are not sufficiently developed to easily support benchmarking CII, For these organizations the benchmarking process will require more manual intervention and consequently greater resources.
As project processes become automated, this barrier should shrink. Lessons Learned Lessons learned from past benchmarking efforts can be helpful for an organization embarking on a benchmarking initiative: Senior management buy-in and support are vital to success, but even with this support, generating enthusiasm is difficult McCabe, Department- and program-level champions are essential.
Even though projects may be unique, the processes are very similar.News All Committee News December - New!Attorney Fees Legislation January - FOIL and OML Case Law Summaries May - Police Body Cameras: An Idea Whose Time has Come January - FOIL at 40 Panel Discussion - Video Now Available December - Annual Report to the Governor and State Legislature.
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