The certificate of Elementary Level proves the competences of candidate for further language learning and achievement of Basic Level of Russian language proficiency. This level stands for the minimum level required to obtain Russian citizenship. At the same time this level is not sufficient for studying in the Russian educational institutions, except for preparatory faculties programs or courses for foreigners.
Tellingly, she made the announcement during a lecture at a military academy. As of today, these remain mere statements and no official documents have been prepared so far. He compared an exam in history to an exam in ideology, which prompted a heated discussion online. Such concerns are completely justified.
Consider the way the state has attempted to influence history teaching in schools. Prompting most concern was World War Two. Infollowing further discussions, these ambitious plans were shelved.
Instead, focus turned towards developing a single Historical and Cultural Standard HCS along with a concept of a teaching-and-methodological standard in Russian history to serve as the basis for all future textbooks.
The basic principles behind these documents are somewhat contradictory.
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An introductory note states that the history of Russia should be presented as part of the global historical process and that Russian history is the history of all territories, countries, and peoples which have ever been part of the Russian state.
Concerning the Stalinist period, it is stated that mass repressions were inevitable side-effects of accelerated modernization, cultural revolution and social mobility. Initially, the draft envisaged focusing on cultural and anthropological approaches — i. When it comes to the idea of a single history textbook, teachers are the main proponents.
A single history textbook simplifies teaching taskssince teachers do not have to solve complex problems themselves and can simply reproduce the predefined model. Many historians, however, expressed their disapproval of a single textbook. For example, the renowned historian Leonid Katzva openly stated that a single textbook was a dangerous endeavor.
As a result, it becomes impossible to adjust a curriculum to the needs of students and teachers and it paves the way for imposed ideology. On the one hand, the history syllabus and the exam will follow the HCS which defines the framework for interpreting the past from the point of view of the state.
The HCS contains a list of difficult historical issues which require explanations provided separately to teachers and students. Should the collapse of the USSR be regarded as the number one geopolitical catastrophe, or as a natural result of breaking the deadlock of socialism?
Interpretations provided in textbooks and in the USE will have an impact on the worldviews of students, especially if they have to be memorized and reproduced in order to answer exam questions.
On the other hand, the existing version of the USE is not entirely biased from a political point of view: High school students and undergraduates would demonstrate an equally low level of knowledge in any other subject were they to be tested.
How many schoolchildren can name all the territorial entities of the Russian Federation? Should we introduce a mandatory geography exam? How many of them can name the difference between totalitarianism and authoritarianism?
Does this require a compulsory exam in social studies? From the point of view of the current regime, history is a type of natural resource which serves to strengthen its position through extraction and refining. Mandatory verification of the knowledge of history serves as a tool for exerting influence on high school students.
The media, along with the teaching community, have often called for the introduction of a third obligatory USE.These Russian Revolution essay questions have been written and compiled by Alpha History authors, for use by teachers and students. They can also be used for short-answer questions and other research or revision tasks.
Countdown to History: Russian Exam taking place on May 21, , AM. RUSSIAN REVOLUTION, World History, Notes for UPSC Exam, conditions for russian revolution, War Communism, NEP, Pramesh Jain Blog. Short description of the Russian history from the early beginnings to today.
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Start studying Russian History Final exam. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Test and improve your knowledge of Russian History in the 19th Century with fun multiple choice exams you can take online with attheheels.com Countdown to History: Russian Exam taking place on May 21, , AM.
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