But it also presents the industry with new, unique challenges. Leveraging big data infrastructures. A key challenge is the migration from existing data management infrastructures and understanding how the data infrastructures coexist in a collaborative environment to support capabilities ranging from real-time online decision-making to offline high-fidelity model building.
A similar requirement holds for the precision with which layers are printed on top of each other layer to layer registration. Control of thickness, holes, and material compatibility wetting, adhesion, solubility are essential, but matter in conventional printing only if the eye can detect them.
Conversely, the visual impression is irrelevant for printed electronics. The selection of the printing method used is determined by requirements concerning printed layers, by the properties of printed materials as well as economic and technical considerations of the final printed products.
Printing technologies divide between sheet-based and roll-to-roll -based approaches. Sheet-based inkjet and screen printing are best for low-volume, high-precision work.
Gravureoffset and flexographic printing are more common for high-volume production, such as solar cells, reaching Organic field-effect transistors and integrated circuits can be prepared completely by means of mass-printing methods.
With high-viscosity materials, like organic dielectrics, and dispersed particles, like inorganic metal inks, difficulties due to nozzle clogging occur. Because ink is deposited via droplets, thickness and dispersion homogeneity is reduced.
Using many nozzles simultaneously and pre-structuring the substrate allows improvements in productivity and resolution, respectively. However, in the latter case non-printing methods must be employed for the actual patterning step.
Screen printing is appropriate for fabricating electrics and electronics due to its ability to produce patterned, thick layers from paste-like materials. This method can produce conducting lines from inorganic materials e. Aerosol Jet Printing also known as Maskless Mesoscale Materials Deposition or M3D  is another material deposition technology for printed electronics.
The atomized droplets are entrained in a gas stream and delivered to the print head. Here, an annular flow of clean gas is introduced around the aerosol stream to focus the droplets into a tightly collimated beam of material. All printing occurs without the use of vacuum or pressure chambers and at room temperature.
The droplets remain tightly focused over this distance, resulting in the ability to print conformal patterns over three dimensional substrates. Despite the high velocity, the printing process is gentle; substrate damage does not occur and there is generally no splatter or overspray from the droplets.
Post-treatment is driven more by the specific ink and substrate combination than by the printing process. A wide range of materials has been successfully deposited with the Aerosol Jet process, including diluted thick film pastes, thermosetting polymers such as UV-curable epoxies, and solvent-based polymers like polyurethane and polyimide, and biologic materials.
This method uses techniques such as thermal, e-beam, sputter and other traditional production technologies to deposit materials through a high precision shadow mask or stencil that is registered to the substrate to better than 1 micrometer.
Other methods with similarities to printing, among them microcontact printing and nano-imprint lithography are of interest.
Often the actual structures are prepared subtractively, e. For example, electrodes for OFETs can be prepared. Materials[ edit ] Both organic and inorganic materials are used for printed electronics.
Ink materials must be available in liquid form, for solution, dispersion or suspension. Material costs must be fit for the application. Electronic functionality and printability can interfere with each other, mandating careful optimization.
For printing, viscosity, surface tension and solid content must be tightly controlled. Cross-layer interactions such as wetting, adhesion, and solubility as well as post-deposition drying procedures affect the outcome. Additives often used in conventional printing inks are unavailable, because they often defeat electronic functionality.
Material properties largely determine the differences between printed and conventional electronics. Printable materials provide decisive advantages beside printability, such as mechanical flexibility and functional adjustment by chemical modification e. Semiconducting nanoparticles used include silicon  and oxide semiconductors.
Organic materials in part differ from conventional electronics in terms of structure, operation and functionality,  which influences device and circuit design and optimization as well as fabrication method. Materials from this class of polymers variously possess conductingsemiconductingelectroluminescentphotovoltaic and other properties.
Other polymers are used mostly as insulators and dielectrics.Jul 05, · I am a PhD holder from the laboratory of electronics and microelectronics of the faculty of sciences of Monastir (Tunisia).
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INTRODUCTION TO THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON MANUAL JOBS - Term Paper - Free term paper samples, guides, articles All that you should know about writing term papers. Electronics to Microelectronics Term Paper: Electronics is the science which studies the relation of electrons with the electromagnetic fields and the methods of creation of the electric appliances, which are generally used to receive, transmit and keep information.
Before the origin of electronics was the invention of radio. Radio became extremely popular at once and was used for the military.
OTA Microelectronics Research and Development Staff John Andelin,Assistant Director, OTA Science, Information, and Natural Resources Division Electronics Division Office of Naval Research Kenneth L. Davis Head, Electronics Division 1 In this paper, the term “microelectronics’ is used to describe miniature electronic devices in.
Smart manufacturing (SM) is a term “generally applied to a movement in manufacturing practices towards integration up and down the supply chain, A smart manufacturing vision for the microelectronics industry. Factory Integration White Paper, edition.