Focuses on the positive only. Focuses on both the positive and the negative.
Jeremy Bentham The origins of utilitarianism can be traced back as far as Epicurusbut, as a school of thought, it is credited to Jeremy Bentham who found that "nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure", then, from that moral insight, deriving the Rule of Utility: He defined the meaning of life as the " greatest happiness principle ".
Jeremy Bentham 's foremost proponent was James Milla significant philosopher in his day, and father of John Stuart Mill. The younger Mill was educated per Bentham's principles, including transcribing and summarizing much of his father's work.
Friedrich Nietzsche characterized nihilism as emptying the world, and especially human existence, of meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, and essential value; succinctly, nihilism is the process of "the devaluing of the highest values".
To Martin Heideggernihilism is the movement whereby " being " is forgotten, and is transformed into value, in other words, the reduction of being to exchange value.
If God, as the supra-sensory ground and goal, of all reality, is dead; if the supra-sensory world of the Ideas has suffered the loss of its obligatory, and above it, its vitalizing and up-building power, then nothing more remains to which Man can cling, and by which he can orient himself.
Camus writes of value-nihilists such as Meursault but also of values in a nihilistic world, that people can instead strive to be "heroic nihilists", living with dignity in the face of absurdity, living with "secular saintliness", fraternal solidarity, and rebelling against and transcending the world's indifference.
The knowledge disclosed by modern science has effectively rewritten the relationship of humankind to the natural world. Advances in medicine and technology have freed humans from significant limitations and ailments of previous eras;  and philosophy—particularly following the linguistic turn —has altered how the relationships people have with themselves and each other are conceived.
Questions about the meaning of life have also seen radical changes, from attempts to reevaluate human existence in biological and scientific terms as in pragmatism and logical positivism to efforts to meta-theorize about meaning-making as a personal, individual-driven activity existentialismsecular humanism.
Pragmatism Pragmatism originated in the lateth-century US, concerning itself mostly with truthand positing that "only in struggling with the environment" do data, and derived theories, have meaning, and that consequences, like utility and practicality, are also components of truth.
Moreover, pragmatism posits that anything useful and practical is not always true, arguing that what most contributes to the most human good in the long course is true.
In practice, theoretical claims must be practically verifiable, i. Pragmatic philosophers suggest that the practical, useful understanding of life is more important than searching for an impractical abstract truth about life.
William James argued that truth could be made, but not sought. Philosophical theism Theists believe God created the universe and that God had a purpose in doing so. Theists also hold the view that humans find their meaning and purpose for life in God's purpose in creating. Theists further hold that if there were no God to give life ultimate meaning, value and purpose, then life would be absurd.
According to existentialism, each man and each woman creates the essence meaning of their life; life is not determined by a supernatural god or an earthly authority, one is free. As such, one's ethical prime directives are action, freedom, and decision, thus, existentialism opposes rationalism and positivism.
In seeking meaning to life, the existentialist looks to where people find meaning in life, in course of which using only reason as a source of meaning is insufficient; this gives rise to the emotions of anxiety and dreadfelt in considering one's free willand the concomitant awareness of death.
According to Jean-Paul Sartreexistence precedes essence ; the essence of one's life arises only after one comes to existence. One can live meaningfully free of despair and anxiety in an unconditional commitment to something finite, and devotes that meaningful life to the commitment, despite the vulnerability inherent to doing so.
Salvation, deliverance, and escape from suffering are in aesthetic contemplation, sympathy for others, and asceticism. Accordingly, he saw nihilism "all that happens is meaningless" as without goals. He stated that asceticism denies one's living in the world; stated that values are not objective facts, that are rationally necessary, universally binding commitments: For to hope in the possibility of help, not to speak of help by virtue of the absurd, that for God all things are possible—no, that he will not do.
And as for seeking help from any other—no, that he will not do for all the world; rather than seek help he would prefer to be himself—with all the tortures of hell, if so it must be. As beings looking for meaning in a meaningless world, humans have three ways of resolving the dilemma.
Suicide or, "escaping existence": Both Kierkegaard and Camus dismiss the viability of this option. Religious belief in a transcendent realm or being: Kierkegaard stated that a belief in anything beyond the Absurd requires a non-rational but perhaps necessary religious acceptance in such an intangible and empirically unprovable thing now commonly referred to as a " leap of faith ".
However, Camus regarded this solution as "philosophical suicide". Acceptance of the Absurd: Camus endorsed this solution notably in his allegorical novel The Plague or La Pestewhile Kierkegaard regarded this solution as "demoniac madness": Per secular humanismthe human species came to be by reproducing successive generations in a progression of unguided evolution as an integral expression of naturewhich is self-existing.
Humanism seeks to develop and fulfill: It is based on the premises that the happiness of the individual person is inextricably linked to the well-being of all humanity, in part because humans are social animals who find meaning in personal relations and because cultural progress benefits everybody living in the culture.
One should seek the advancement of humanity and of all life to the greatest degree feasible and seek to reconcile Renaissance humanism with the 21st century's technoscientific culture. In this light, every living creature has the right to determine its personal and social "meaning of life".Introduction.
Positive psychology (PP) has been all the rage since Martin Seligman’s APA president address in In spite of its controversial nature (Carstensen & Charles, ; Held, ; Lazarus, ), PP has effectively changed the language and landscape of mainstream psychology and it continues to grow exponentially in the teaching, research, and applications of PP.
Archives and past articles from the Philadelphia Inquirer, Philadelphia Daily News, and attheheels.com A comprehensive review of positive psychology. Positive psychology. William D. Tillier; Calgary Alberta; Update: Under construction. According to Seligman, we can experience three kinds of happiness: 1) pleasure and gratification, 2) embodiment of strengths and virtues and 3) meaning and purpose. Each kind of happiness is linked to positive emotion but from his quote, you can see that in his mind there is a progression from the first type of happiness of pleasure.
Pondering the idea of whether or not one has lived a fulfilling life is by no means uncommon; rather, it is an essential part of being human. This is based on the evaluation of one’s own affective reactions and cognitive judgements.
" The great danger for family life, in the midst of any society whose idols are pleasure, comfort, and independence, lies in the fact that people close their hearts and become selfish," John Paul II.
Please note that this text-only version, provided for ease of printing and reading, includes more than 40 pages and may take up to 10 minutes to print. Jonathan Haidt is a thinker who seeks harmony where possible, and his book The Happiness Hypothesis strives to achieve a fruitful balance between ancient wisdom and modern science, between East and West, and between liberalism and conservatism.
The Three Dimension Of Happiness According To Seligman Harvard Case Study Solution and Analysis of Harvard Business Case Studies Solutions – Assignment HelpIn most courses studied at Harvard Business schools, students are provided with a .