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References and Further Reading 1.
Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles. Now supports 7th edition of MLA. James D. Lester has 30 books on Goodreads with ratings. James D. Lester’s most popular book is Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide. This is an indispensable guide to research writing; it has been relied upon by millions of students & instructors over the years. Lester explains how documentation has changed from footnotes to in-text citations, while the content of research papers now includes cross-curricular topics. In this Price: $
Life and Works Alfred Schutz was born in Vienna in He was an only child in an upper-middle-class Austrian Jewish family and had a strong mother. In his youth he attended a classical Gymnasium in Vienna and developed a lifelong interest in music. After his serving in World War I, he received his doctorate in the philosophy of law at Vienna under Hans Kelsen in three years; studied marginal-utility economics; and became interested in the interpretative verstehende sociology of Max Weber.
Schutz completed Der sinnhafte Aufbau der sozialen Welt in On the recommendation of Tomoo Otaka as well as Kaufmann, he sent a copy to Husserl, who invited him to Freiburg and soon asked him to become his assistant.
It was necessary, however, for Schutz to continue his career as a banking executive in order to support his family. Husserl called him an executive by day and a phenomenologist by night. He visited Husserl often until the latter's death in and continued to write essays, especially in the philosophy of economics.
After the Nazi Anschluss, he helped many others flee the Nazis; he himself moved first to Paris and then to New York, where he continued to work in a private banking firm.
Soon he also began teaching sociology and eventually philosophy in the evenings at the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science of the New School for Social Research. His correspondence with Aron Gurwitsch well documents his thinking from untilwhen he died.
Schutz published dozens of essays in the United States and began working toward a second book during his last decade. Before his death, however, he was only able to outline an arrangement of passages from various essays, eventually fleshed out by Thomas Luckmann in two volumes.
But Schutz had also managed to plan several volumes of Collected Papers that his widow and two other students quickly edited after his death. Moreover, translations of the Aufbau into English as well as it and volumes of papers into a number of Western and Asian languages began in the s.
His quite extensive, international, and multidisciplinary influence is still growing within and beyond philosophy. His oeuvre also continues to reward close study.
Several international conferences were held in the centennial year ofand there is a video of his life and work. Phenomenological Philosophy of the Social Sciences If phenomenology is comprehended in the strict signification now sometimes qualified as Husserlianthere can be no doubt that Alfred Schutz is the preeminent phenomenological philosopher of the social sciences.
But such a characterization needs to be comprehended carefully. In his book Schutz lists not only economics, jurisprudence, sociology, and political science, but also biography and the histories of art, economics, music, philosophy, and politics and implicitly archaeology as "Sozialwissenschaften.
This list can seem odd today because the historical sciences and jurisprudence are not usually considered social sciences, at least in the United States.
A broader title seems necessary. One gets the most from studying Schutz if one bears in mind that his philosophy of the cultural sciences is concerned with all of the above listed disciplines.
What is particularly interesting about Schutz's position, is, however, his recognition that the cultural or social scientists regularly reflect on those same themes, that is, that they too engage in science theory.
This makes discussions of basic concepts and methodology between scientists and philosophers possible.
He did succeed in having such discussions with some "Austrian school" economists, including Fritz Machlup, Friedrich A. Hayek, and Ludwig von Mises.
He recognized, however, that science-theoretical reflections by scientists tend to be limited by the needs of the particular disciplines and hence seldom reach a fully philosophical level. Schutz's approach can be called a "gentle prescriptivism," which may be why his thought has been very well received in a score of non-philosophical disciplines concerned with aspects of the sociocultural world.anarchism and other essays summary of the great essay film gallipoli italy attention getting devices for essays au cirque maurice careme illustration essay chopin.
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This resource, revised according to the 6 th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.
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